Dog Breed 101: Pomeranian

Written by Dr. Muqeet Mushtaq DVM, MS ABG (Animal Breeding and Genetics)



The Pomeranian is an actual "toy" dog, with an ideal height of eight to 11 inches and only three to seven pounds (one to three kilograms). Insolent and friendly, Pomeranians also need regular exercise and training. They are intelligent, but sometimes they do not realize that they are small and compete with big dogs.

Originally from the 1800s, the Pomeranian was a favourite of Queen Victoria of Germany.


The Pomeranian is considered to be a miniature spotted type of dog. Germany, especially Polynesia, is known to be their origin in the 1800s. Queen Victoria fall in love with the breed.

The dogs were then selected for their small size and bright colours, which is why we are seeing them today instead of the standard grey. From the beginning, "Poms" are often referred to as having a little bit of watchdog duty.


Pomeranians are generally perky, friendly little dogs. They do not realize that they are small in stature and sometimes deal with big dogs or verbally threaten them!

These are active little dogs that need daily exercise, even if it's just a walk around the block. They are knowledgeable and perform well in obedience competitions despite a small free breed. As they get more aged, they are more likely to be adopted by pet parents.

Pomeranians are often well-alerted and alarm dogs and can bark excessively. They are good with children, but children need to be warned that they are small dogs and not as strong as older breeds.


Pomeranians are generally easy to keep, although there are some exceptions. They are not prone to obesity, perhaps because of their dynamic nature. Double coats require regular grooming once or twice a week, with daily sessions during the shedding season.

Despite being young, Pomeranians need regular exercises and thrive on training. They are great and enjoy learning and performing tricks. They usually get along well with other pets, but caution should be taken when mixing any toy breed with larger breeds that could accidentally injure the toy dog. If raised with children, they do much better.

Poms are the best watchdogs with their alert demeanour and barking attitude. They make the perfect alert for older people because of their awareness and their small size.

Breed Characteristics

Weight Range:

  • Male: 3-7 lbs.
  • Female: 3-7 lbs.

Height at Withers:

  • Male: 11 inches
  • Female: 10 inches

Other Body Features

  • Ears: Upright ears (naturally)
  • Exercise Requirements: <20 minutes/day
  • Energy Levels: Very energetic
  • Longevity Ranges: 12-16 yrs.
  • The tendency to Drool: Low 
  • The tendency to Snore: Low
  • The tendency to Bark: High
  • The tendency to Dig: Low 
  • Social/Attention Requirements: Low
  • Bred For: Companion

Coat Characteristic

  • Coat Length: Medium
  • Coat type: Double coat, straight
  • Coat Colours: All colours and patterns allowed
  • Overall Grooming Needs: Moderate

Club Recognition

  • AKC Classifications: Toy
  • UKC Classifications: Companion dog
  • Prevalence: Common

Their luxurious fluffy double coat easily recognizes the Pomeranians with ears and the face of a fox. The body shape is quite square, and the tail is sharp and curved at the back. The head is rounded with some distinct spots.

Pomeranians come in a fantastic array of colours. A bright red is most commonly associated with this breed, but everything from black to white and shade in between is acceptable, even chocolate.

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